Philosophy

Philosophy is the study of existence, knowledge, values, language, and related topics that have challenged both ordinary and great thinkers throughout human history.

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Research & Development

Research & Development

Our goal is to bridge the gap between science and the public. We publish articles and videos on topics of philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, mathematics, and evolution. We also organize meetups for discussions, offer research and writing services, and comment on current events (for example, the pandemic).

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Blog posts

Building a Conscious Mind
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Building an Artificial Consciousness in 39 Steps

This article summarizes the entire book and provides you with a step-by-step guide of modules that would need to be implemented for an artificial consciousness.

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The Attention and Awareness Schema Theories
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Is the Self but a Simulation?

This article discusses the attention schema theory. It explains our subjective experience of the world but leaves us with more questions than answers.

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Model-Building
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How Models can Improve the Control of a System

Knowing how a system will behave in the future helps us to make adjustments in the present. This article discusses how models form the backbone of our mind.

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The Loop of Consciousness
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What can the Stroop Effect Teach us about Consciousness?

This article discusses experiments that show how the brain consists of competing parts and how the its architecture produces a "mind's eye" and "inner voice".

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The Search for Consciousness
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Does Consciousness have a Location?

Where is consciousness located? This article discusses why it is so difficult to pinpoint the position of a "consciousness" within the brain.

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Theories of Consciousness
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What Theories of Consciousness were there in the Past?

Knowing the history of the research into possible theories of consciousness gives us an overview of the possible alternatives of what consciousness could be.

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Introduction to Consciousness
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Why is Visual Perception like a Camera?

This article give you an overview why the intuitive understanding of perception is wrong and why it took humanity so long to recognize this fact.

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The Theory of Mind
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How do we Instinctively Know what other People Know?

This article discusses the connection between empathy, recognizing yourself in the mirror, and building a concept of your own and other people's minds.

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The Big Bang
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Where did the Big Bang come from?

What is nothingness? How can there be something out of nothing? Is "nothingness" stable or is the creation of the universe an inevitable result?

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Interpretations of the Quantum Theory
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What other Interpretations of Quantum Theory are there?

Quantum theory is a perfect example how a scientific theory without an underlying philosophy looks like. Which interpretation is most likely true?

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Copenhagen Interpretation
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What is the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics?

Can we grasph the philosophical implications of the most populat interpretation of quantum mechanics? If true, what would this interpretation mean for reality?

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Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How to Apply the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

At the quantum level, the world becomes less and less intuitive. This is the first of a series of articles giving you an introduction to quantum mechanics.

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Popular Science
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

The Challenges of Communicating Science

This article takes a critical look at the field of science and its ivory tower-like approach in society. What can we do to bridge the gap to the public?

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Occam's Razor
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How to Select Between Competing Theories?

Any model of reality can be arbitrarily complex. This article discusses one method of how to select between models and theories of different complexity.

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An Introduction to Science
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What is the Significance of the Scientific Method?

This article discusses the philosophical foundation of the science method, from its historic roots, the challenge of placebo effects, and its modern version.

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Physics
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What is Causality?

If there was no causality, we could not think about causality. What else can we deduce about the universe with using just logic and philosophy?

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The Value of Language
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Has Language a Role Beyond mere Communication of Facts?

This article discusses the importance about shared experiences and how this forms the basis of the languages we speak and how we communicate with others.

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Properties of Language
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Where does Language Come From and How Can We Learn it?

Looking at its history and how children learn, language seems to be trivial. How can knowledge about language and its past help in today's discussions?

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Language and Mathematics
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How does Math relate to Philosophy and Language?

What does math set apart from normal language and what are the parallels? Can we find similarities between math and philosophy? How can this help?

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Induction and Deduction
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Do We Need to be Omniscient to use Logic?

This article discusses the limits of epistemology and addresses the arguments against the idea that we can know something. Can we even use induction?

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Concepts
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How Can We Grasp an Infinite Universe with a Finite Mind?

Concepts are abstractions that permit us a description of reality and allow us to form compact units of information from many different origins.

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Epistemology
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

How Do We Know What We Know?

With ontology, we were able to realize that we can be conscious of reality. With epistemology, we want to discuss how we can be conscious of reality.

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Basics of Philosophy
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What Are the Basics of Philosophy?

In this article, I provide the most fundamental introduction into philosophy. What can we observe in reality and what can we deduce from our observations?

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The Key to Wisdom
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What Methods Can We Apply to Become Wise?

In this article, I discuss my personal favorite, the Socratic Method. We need to keep asking questions to find out the common truth, namely reality.

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Why You Need Philosophy
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

Why Do We Still Need Philosophy in 2022?

This article discusses how we are doomed to repeat the same mistakes if we do not keep our knowledge of philosophy fresh and ever-expanding.

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How Are Heroes Relevant To You
By
Clemens Lode
, posted on
February 28, 2022
.

What are False Heroes?

A true hero stands up to false heroes. We need to put philosophy in practice, the opposite of a hero is not the opponent but, instead, the passive observer.

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Related Books and Services

The cover of Does Your Brain Need You? - An Introduction to Neuroscience and Consciousness

Does Your Brain Need You? - An Introduction to Neuroscience and Consciousness

How to create consciousness on a computer?

This book is an introduction to neuroscience and theories of consciousness. It explores the attention schema theory and how to replicate human consciousness.
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Cover mit griechischen Statuen und dem Titel Philosophie für Helden, Wissen und Sprache

Philosophie für Helden: Erkenntnis (Wissen und Sprache)

Die Philosophie von Helden: Wissen und Sprache

Das Buch gibt eine Einführung in Heldentum, Weisheit, Ontologie, Erkenntnistheorie, Eigenschaften der Sprache, Mathematik und den Wert von Sprache.
Read more...
Cover of Philosophy for Heroes: Act, a book on neuroscience and consciousness

Philosophy for Heroes: Act (Neuroscience and Consciousness)

Can Consciousness be Simulated?

The book introduces you to neuroscience and the philosophical discussion on consciousness. It lays the groundwork of creating a smart computer.
Read more...
The cover of the book Philosophy for Heroes: Continuum showing a ocean with a turtle and a human head.

Philosophy for Heroes: Continuum (Physics and Evolution)

How did matter and life emerge from nothingness?

What is the quantum theory and how can we interpret it? How did the universe come out of "nothingness" and how did life develop from non-living matter?
Read more...
Cover of the book Philosophy for Heroes: Knowledge, with two Greek statues in front of a blue sky

Philosophy for Heroes: Knowledge (Philosophy and Language)

True heroes don’t follow, they lead

An introduction to basic philosophical ideas, especially what exactly knowledge is, how language influences our thinking, and how we could define heroism.
Read more...

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