With deduction, we conclude from the general case the special case. For this, we use the knowledge that we gained from induction, check if a certain perception fits the definition of a concept, and conclude for the corresponding entity that it has all the properties of the corresponding concept. In short, deduction is the process of subsuming new instances under a known concept [cf. Rand et al.1990, p. 28]. Deduction thus operates in the opposite direction as induction. For example, if we notice that cars can drive on the street, and we see a parked car, then we can deduct that this car is able to drive on the street as well, because we have assigned the parked car to the known concept “car.”

« Back to Glossary Index

By Clemens Lode

Clemens Lode is a management consultant with focus on agile project management methods (check out He likes to summarize his insights into books, check out his philosophy series "Philosophy for Heroes" here: His core approach to philosophy and management is that people need to be more aware of their limits and ultimately their identity and their vulnerabilities.